Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV)
Nausea and vomiting are problematic adverse events for patients receiving chemotherapy. Inadequately controlled CINV can precipitate a number of medical complications that may prove life-threatening, including dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, malnutrition or aspiration pneumonia. These complications may lead to extended hospitalization, with the associated burden on nursing time and pharmacy resources and overall cost implications. CINV has a considerable impact on aspects of the patient’s quality of life, as well as those of the family and caregivers.
For some regimens such as high-dose cisplatin, which has a strong emetic effect, CINV can affect as many as 90% of patients making patient compliance a potential problem. The distress resulting from these symptoms can escalate over time and interfere even with the most effective anti-tumor therapy: as a consequence of failing to control CINV, patients may be less compliant with their chemotherapy.
CINV is usually classified as either acute (up to 24 h) or delayed (post 24 h), although it is recognized that this classification is partly arbitrary. The incidence of nausea and vomiting during the acute phase is probably a predictor of the incidence of delayed CINV. Poorly controlled nausea and vomiting in previous chemotherapy increases the likelihood of CINV. Control of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy is, therefore, an important objective of supportive care in cancer chemotherapy.
Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)
Malignant lymphoma is a general term to describe tumors that have developed from lymphocytes, mainly in the immune tissue (lymph nodes). A variety of clinical pathological characterizations present in malignant lymphoma. Malignant lymphoma is classified Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). NHL mainly consists of B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. It is reported that relative higher incidence of T-cell lymphoma rather than B-cell lymphoma in Japan and Asia.
PTCL is a major subtype of T-cell lymphoma with a high incidence rate.
Although there is no standard treatment established to treat PTCL, CHOP therapy is widely used as front line treatment. However, there is a large need for more effective and safer therapies as the clinical efficacy of CHOP to treat PTCL is limited. In addition, there are no standard salvage therapies for PTCL, and new, breakthrough therapies are needed.
Oral Mucositis caused by chemo and radiotherapy
Oral Mucositis (OM) is a severe side effect of cancer therapies (chemo and radiotherapy) and is characterized by painful ulceration of the oral mucosa. OM affects nearly all head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy (RT); 30%-75% of patients undergoing chemotherapy; and most patients undergoing conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
OM is caused by damage to the DNA in the basal epithelial cell lining of the mouth leading to decreased cell proliferation ability. OM can prevent patients from eating, swallowing and speaking, and can limit the dosing and frequency of treatment for cancer. OM often necessitates hospitalization for re-hydration, opiate pain medication and total parenteral nutrition.